According to the Panamanian Criminal Code, anyone who, through deception, obtains or causes a third party to obtain an illicit benefit at the expense of another, shall be punished with imprisonment for one to four years. The penalty shall be increased by up to one-third when committed by abusing personal or professional relationships or when carried out through a cybernetic or computerized means.

The conduct described in the previous article shall be punished with imprisonment for five to ten years in the following cases:

  • If the financial harm exceeds one hundred thousand US dollars (US$100,000.00).
  • If committed by proxies, managers, or administrators in the exercise of their functions.
  • If committed to the detriment of the Public Administration or a charitable institution.
  • If the identity of another person is usurped or used to obtain any benefit.

Anyone who, with the purpose of wrongfully obtaining payment from insurance or another illicit benefit, destroys, damages, or makes an insured item disappear, shall be punished with imprisonment for two to six years. The same penalty shall apply to the insured party who, for the same purpose, causes an injury or intentionally worsens the consequences of an injury caused by any means.

The debtor or partner who disposes of an item given in pledge or mortgage as if it were not encumbered, or who establishes a pledge or mortgage on someone else’s property, shall be punished with imprisonment for four to six years.

Anyone who, without the consent of the owner, supplier, concessionaire, or administrator, uses, consumes, or captures energy, water, telecommunication, telecommunication signal and video, cable terminal equipment, satellite, parabolic, or alters any measuring or control element of these, shall be punished with imprisonment for one to two years. The penalty shall be two to four years of imprisonment for those who transmit, retransmit, or distribute.

Anyone who, for their own benefit or that of a third party, installs connections or in any way alters or manipulates measuring instruments to commit the offense defined in the previous article, or who forces or removes devices, filters, or equipment intended to prevent unauthorized capture, use, reception, transmission, retransmission, or distribution of energy or television or video signals, shall be punished with a penalty of two to three years of imprisonment or fines or weekend arrest, when the consumption derived from the act is not less than two hundred and fifty US dollars (US$250.00).

Anyone who, to obtain an illicit benefit for themselves or a third party, alters, modifies, or manipulates programs, databases, networks, or computer systems to the detriment of a third party, shall be punished with imprisonment for four to six years. The penalty shall be five to eight years of imprisonment when the act is committed by the person in charge or responsible for the database, networks, or computer system or by the person authorized to access them, or when the act is committed by a person using privileged information.

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